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What Are The Warning Signs Of Diabetic Retinopathy?

A diabetes condition that impacts the eyes is diabetic retinopathy. The blood vessels of the retina, a light-sensitive region in the back of the eye, are damaged as a result of this condition.

It’s crucial to undergo a thorough dilated eye exam with an eye surgeon a minimum of once a year if you have diabetes.

Initially, diabetic retinopathy may not manifest indicators or may only result in minor vision issues. But it could result in blindness.

Anybody with type 1 or type 2 diabetes has the potential to acquire the illness. The likelihood of developing this ocular problem increases with the duration of diabetes and the degree of blood sugar management.

Progressively, having excessive sugar in your blood can cause the little blood capillaries that nourish the retina to become obstructed, severing the retina’s blood supply. The eye makes an effort to generate fresh blood vessels as a result. However, these new blood vessels don’t grow properly and are highly prone to leakage.

What are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy?

There are typically no symptoms in the initial phases of diabetic retinopathy. Some patients experience visual changes, such as difficulty reading or seeing objects in the distance. These adjustments could arise and disappear.

Blood vessels in the retina begin to bleed into the vitreous, the gel-like fluid that occupies the eye, as the condition progresses. If this occurs, you could notice cobweb-like black, floaty areas or streaks. The spots may occasionally go away on themselves, but it’s still crucial to seek medical attention and see an eye doctor immediately.

When to see an eye doctor?

The best approach to avoid losing your vision is to control your diabetes meticulously. Even if your eyesight appears to be fine, schedule an annual dilation eye test if you have diabetes.

Your risk for contracting diabetic retinopathy might be increased by having diabetes before getting pregnant or contracting it during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Your ophthalmologist may advise further eye tests at various points during your pregnancy if you’re expecting.

If you notice any abrupt changes in your eyesight or if it gets cloudy, splotchy, or blurry, call your eye doctor immediately.

What are the types of diabetic retinopathy?

There are two different types of diabetic retinopathy, one being Early and the other being Advanced.

  • Early diabetic retinopathy

Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), the more prevalent variety, is marked by the absence of new blood vessel growth. (proliferating)

The retinal blood vessel walls deteriorate when you have NPDR. Small protrusions from the smaller arteries’ walls can occasionally release fluid and blood into the retina. The diameter of larger retinal vessels might also start to enlarge and fluctuate. NPDR can worsen when more blood vessels become obstructed, going from mild to severe.

There may occasionally be an accumulation of fluid (edema) in the centre portion (macular) region of the retina as a result of retinal blood vessel injury. Treatment is necessary if macular edema impairs vision in order to avoid irreversible vision loss.

  • Advanced diabetic retinopathy

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a more problematic form of diabetic retinopathy that can develop. This kind results in the development of new, aberrant blood vessels in the retina as injured blood vessels seal off. The transparent, jelly-like material (vitreous), which fills the centre of your eye, might seep into these nascent blood vessels because they are weak and flimsy.

The retina can ultimately separate from the back of your eye as a result of scar tissue produced by the development of new blood vessels. The eyeball may become strained if the new blood vessels obstruct the usual drainage of fluid from the eye. Glaucoma can develop as a result of this accumulation harming the optic nerve, which delivers visuals from your eye to your brain.

How do you prevent diabetic retinopathy?

MethodDetails
Control your diabetesMake exercising and eating healthily a part of your everyday regimen. Get at least 150 minutes weekly of mild aerobic activity, such as walking. As prescribed, consume insulin or oral diabetic medicines.
Keep a close watch on your blood sugar level.If you’re sick or under stress, you might need to check and record your blood sugar level more often than once a day. Consult your doctor on the frequency of accessing your blood sugar.
Inquire with your doctor about a test for glycosylated haemoglobin.The haemoglobin A1C test, also known as the glycosylated haemoglobin test, measures your mean blood sugar level throughout the two to three months prior to the test. The A1C target for the majority of diabetes sufferers is 7% or less.
Maintain your cholesterol and blood pressure in check.Losing extra weight, maintaining a balanced diet, and exercising frequently can aid. Occasionally, medication is also required.
Consult your doctor for assistance in quitting if you smoke or use other tobacco products.Smoking enhances the likelihood of developing diabetic retinopathy and other diabetes impediments.
Watch for alterations in your vision.If your eyesight suddenly alters or becomes cloudy, splotchy, or blurry, call your eye doctor immediately.

What’s the treatment for diabetic retinopathy?

Your eye doctor will likely only monitor how your eyes are progressing in the initial phases of diabetic retinopathy. Every two to four months, some people with diabetic retinopathy may require a thorough dilated eye exam.

It’s critical to begin therapy as soon as possible if the condition is advanced, particularly if your eyesight has deteriorated. Treatment can prevent your vision from deteriorating even further, while it won’t reverse any damage already done. Additionally, it’s critical to take action to manage your blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes.

Injections:

Anti-VEGF drugs are prescription medications that help impede or overturn diabetic retinopathy. Corticosteroids, another class of medication, can also be effective.

Laser therapy:

Eye physicians can utilise lasers to cause the blood vessels in your retina to constrict and stop seeping in order to lessen edema.

Eye surgery:

Your eye surgeon might suggest an eye surgery procedure known as a vitrectomy if your retina is often bleeding or you have numerous scars in your eye.

Always keep in mind that diabetes does not unquestionably cause visual loss. Complications from diabetes can be greatly reduced by diligently controlling the condition.

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